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Cone dystrophy

Macular conditions

The light-sensing cells in the retina come in two main kinds: rods and cones. Rods are extremely sensitive and work better in dim light, whereas cones are more effective in bright light. Cones give us our colour vision and although they exist across the retina, they are densely clustered around the macula.

Doyne honeycomb dystrophy

Macular conditions

Most cases of Doyne honeycomb dystrophy are caused by a mutation or mistake on a single gene called EFEMP1. This causes the gene to ‘fold’ a protein wrongly, and stops it breaking down as it should. The protein then builds up to create ‘drusen’ inside the eye tissue and stops nutrients getting from blood vessels to the light-sensing cells that need them. As the cells waste and die, sight is lost.

Sorsby fundus dystrophy

Macular conditions

Sorsby fundus dystrophy causes similar symptoms to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), although it generally affects people at a younger age.

Pattern dystrophy

Macular conditions

Pattern dystrophy is the umbrella term for a group of retinal conditions. All of them cause a build-up of waste material called lipofuscin, which causes damage to tissue in the eye.

Bull’s eye maculopathy

Macular conditions

Bull’s eye maculopathy describes a number of different conditions in which there is a ring of pale-looking damage around a darker area of the macula. The macula can often appear to have circular bands of different shades of pink and orange. It can appear at any age, and cause mild or more severe sight loss.

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)

Macular conditions

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum or PXE (pronounced ‘pixie’) is a disease affecting many parts of the body. It causes calcium and other minerals to build up in various body tissues, especially those which are usually elastic, such as the skin on the neck, armpits and knees. Affected skin develops a yellow, waxy, ‘cobblestone’ appearance and forms loose folds.

Macular oedema

Macular conditions

Macular oedema (MO) can occur due to inflammation, retinal vein occlusion, surgery and other reasons. Diabetic Macular Oedema (DMO) is a vision threatening complication of diabetes, to understand more about this specific type of macular oedema visit our Diabetic macular oedema webpage.

Central serous retinopathy (CSR)

Macular conditions

Central serous retinopathy (CSR) is also known as central serous chorioretinopathy or CSCR. In CSR the macula becomes separated from the eye tissue behind it, and fluid builds up in the space created.

Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC)

Macular conditions

Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is a rare condition caused by inflammation at the back of the eye. It is more common in women, and in short-sighted people.

Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS)

Macular conditions

Visual hallucinations can occur as a result of sight loss.

Up to half of all people with macular degeneration are thought to experience visual hallucinations at some time.