What is the macular?
The macula is the central bit of the retina (the tissue at the back of the eye which senses light). The macula is about 5mm across. It is responsible for our central vision, our colour vision and the fine detail of what we see.
The macula has a very high concentration of photoreceptor cells that send signals to the brain which interprets them as images. The rest of the retina processes our peripheral, or side vision. Damage to the macula can mean losing the ability to read, watch TV or recognise faces.
What is macular oedema?
Macular oedema is swelling of the retina at the back of the eye in the macular area usually due to fluid build-up from leakage of damaged or abnormal blood vessels. Macular oedema can occur in common retinal diseases such as wet macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and also in rare conditions such as retinal dystrophies. It can also occur as a result of inflammation following eye surgery, trauma or inflammatory conditions of the retina.
What are the symptoms of macular oedema?
Macular oedema usually causes blurring or distortion of the central vision. Fine visual tasks such as reading are most noticeably affected by macular oedema. Sometimes there is very little or no blurring when the macular oedema is very mild or if it does not involve the most central part of the macula.
How is macular oedema diagnosed?
Macular oedema can be detected or suspected by an optometrist or ophthalmologist by an internal examination of the eye using eye drops to dilate the pupil and a machine called a slit lamp to look at the back of the eye. It is then confirmed using an OCT scan which can show up the swollen area of the macula at the back of the eye and can also provide a measurement of how abnormally thickened the macula is. Macular oedema can cause the macula to swell up to over 500 microns in thickness.
How is macular oedema treated?
The treatment of macular oedema depends on the cause and may involve regular but quite painless injections of drugs into the eye. The drug that is used depends on which underlying condition is causing it.
Macular oedema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO)
Drugs that have been licensed for macular oedema due to RVO are Lucentis® (medical name ranibizumab), Eylea® (medical name aflibercept) and Ozurdex®.
Macular oedema due to inflammation
Ozurdex has been licensed for treatment of posterior uveitis or severe inflammation at the back of the eye. Sometimes it is used to treat macular oedema due to inflammation following cataract surgery. Eye drops of steroid may also be used to treat this condition.
Other causes of macular oedema
Macular oedema associated with inherited retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or optic disc pit can be treated with Dorzolamide eye drops such as Trusopt or Acetazolamide tablets.
Diabetic Macular Oedema
Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is the most common cause of sight loss in people with diabetes.
When leaky vessels cause fluid to build up in the macula, at the centre of the retina, it is known as diabetic macular oedema. It is a complication of diabetic retinopathy and results in a condition very similar to wet AMD .
Being diagnosed with diabetic macular oedema can be distressing and worrying but, with the right information and support, people can cope very well.
The condition is painless, and although macular oedema affects central vision, peripheral vision is not affected. However, other forms of diabetic retinopathy may affect your wider vision.
How diabetes affects your eyes
People with diabetes are at risk of damage to their eyesight. To work properly, the eye needs a constant supply of blood. When control of blood sugar and insulin levels in the body is poor, the blood vessels of the eye become damaged. The blood vessels of the retina are particularly prone to leaking and a condition known as diabetic retinopathy can develop.
People with diabetes should reduce their risk of vision loss by attending their annual diabetic eye screening appointment.
In the early stages of diabetes a person may not notice any effect on their vision. Damage to the retina occurs over many years.
It may affect the entire retina but when the damage causes only small bulges in the blood vessels of the retina, the eyesight remains good.
However, when the blood vessels in or close to the macula become damaged, or there is sudden bleeding or fluid leaking into the macula, then sight can worsen dramatically.
- Dark spots like a smudge on glasses or gaps may appear in your vision, especially first thing in the morning.
- Objects in front of you might change shape, size or colour or seem to move or disappear.
- Colours can fade.
- You may find bright light or glare difficult.
- You may experience difficulty reading.
- Straight lines such as door frames and lamp posts may appear distorted or bent.
If you notice a sudden change in your vision, contact your optometrist or hospital eye specialist urgently.
The longer you have diabetes, the greater your chance of developing sight loss through DMO. About 90% of people with type 1 diabetes will have some degree of retinopathy after 10 years.
For people with type 2 diabetes the chance of developing some degree of retinopathy after 10 years varies between 67–80% (or two in three to four in five), depending on whether they need to take insulin.
More than a third of all diabetic patients will develop a level of severity of macular oedema which, without changes to the person’s lifestyle and better control of blood sugar, will require treatment.
If your blood sugar level is high, you increase the risk of developing retinopathy. Small changes in your levels can significantly affect your risk of developing retinopathy and if you have high blood pressure as well, you have a higher risk of developing advanced retinopathy. Overall, 7 per cent (around one in 14) of all people with diabetes develop DMO, which will result in a noticeable loss of vision.
If DMO is suspected, you will be referred to the eye hospital for tests. Your hospital specialist (ophthalmologist) may use:
- Eye drops to dilate the pupils to allow them to clearly see the back of the eye. The drops may make your vision blurred and sensitive to light for a short time so consider taking someone with you.
- Scans using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to produce a cross-sectional image of the retina.
- Fluorescein dye angiography. A dye is injected into a vein in the arm. It travels to the eye, highlighting the blood vessels in the retina so they can be photographed. The dye will temporarily change the colour of your urine.
If you have any vision problems in between your appointments seek immediate advice from your diabetes care team or GP. Do not wait until your next hospital appointment.
DMO can be treated if caught early. Drugs are injected into the eye to stop fluid leaking from the blood vessels. Following diagnosis, people will usually have a number of injection treatments in the first few months. Subsequent check-ups will then be required to assess when more injections are needed.
The injections are not as bad as they might sound. The eye is anaesthetised and the needle goes into the corner of the eye so the patient does not see it. These are called intravitreal injections. The treatment cannot restore sight if there is already significant damage to the macula.
There are four drugs in use for treating DMO: Lucentis (ranibizumab), Eylea (aflibercept) Beovu (Brolucizumab) and Vabysmo (faricimab). They act on the blood vessels in the retina to reduce fluid leakage that leads to oedema in the eye.
The frequency and number of injections depends on how a patient responds to the drug. Ask your eye doctor about your treatment programme. Do not miss a treatment session – any sight loss cannot be recovered.
Another drug Avastin® (bevacizumab), may be used. However, its routine use is to treat cancer and it is not licensed in the UK for treatment in the eye. Some people who have had cataract surgery or who have a particular form of DMO may be offered an intravitreal injection of a steroid drug called Ozurdex® (dexamethasone) or Iluvien® (fluocinolone acetonide). They are slow-release drugs implanted in the eye. Iluvien is suitable for people who have had cataract surgery, whereas you may be offered Ozurdex regardless if you have had cataract surgery or not.
Some people may be offered laser treatment when the DMO does not involve the centre of the macula. This treatment aims to stabilise vision and does not generally improve sight. It usually involves one or more visits to an outpatient laser clinic for treatment by an ophthalmologist.
Before the procedure, local anaesthetic will be administered to the surface of your eye, as well as eye drops to widen your pupils. A special contact lens will be placed on your eye to hold your eyelids open and allow the laser beam to be focused onto your retina. Laser treatment is not usually painful, but you may feel a sharp pricking sensation.
Protecting your eyes
Diabetes is a lifelong condition, so maintaining a healthy lifestyle and monitoring your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels is crucial to avoid damage to your eyes.
The following can help to protect your eyesight.
- Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly, aiming to keep within limits recommended by your doctor or nurse.
- Maintain a healthy weight and blood pressure.
- Eat plenty of fruit and green vegetables.
- Drink only a modest amount of alcohol.
- Take regular exercise.
- Do not smoke.
It is essential that you attend your diabetes clinic appointments. Your diabetes care team will maintain and monitor your diabetes care plan. Make sure that your eyes are screened at least once a year to spot any problems early.
If you wear glasses or contact lenses continue to visit your optician regularly and tell the optometrist that you are diabetic.
Managing daily living
Loss of central vision through DMO can be very frustrating and can greatly affect everyday life. You can make your remaining vision more comfortable by wearing lenses that block UV and blue light and that reduce glare, and by wearing a hat with a brim or visor to shade eyes from direct sunlight.
Even if you are having treatment for DMO, it is important to know what to do if you reach a stage where you begin to struggle with daily tasks. For more information, please see our Practical guides.
Some people with DMO experience visual hallucinations called Charles Bonnet syndrome. These images might be of people, animals, landscapes or patterns.
People who haven’t heard of Charles Bonnet syndrome often worry they are developing a mental health problem. However, it is actually a normal response of the brain to sight loss. As fewer messages reach the brain, the cells that normally process vision can create images of things that are not there.
They may occur once or twice, or continue for several years and can be distressing. For further information about visual hallucinations, phone our Advice and Information Service on 0300 3030 111.
Support for you
We provide free information and support to those with macular disease, along with their family and friends, to help people keep their independence.
Advice and Information service
Free information and support to those with macular disease, along with their family and friends, to help people retain their independence.
Join an online community of people with the same type of macular disease as you
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